Posted by: vip | February 9, 2009

Surnames 3: Sarmiento

Finding a veritable needle in a haystack is being able to pinpoint a particular person from among the slew of first names in pre-Claveria records. Imagine the exhilaration at stumbling on one! Actually, you can only identify a particular Pedro or Petra from the hundred if you can remember the first names of his or her parents as you rummage through a book of pre-Claveria records.

Don Roman Sarmiento, he who built the Balay na Tisa of Carcar, was on records as having been born in Cebu City, or more precisely Parian. At the time of this particular record, Parian the parish and pueblo was still extant but already on shaky grounds as an order for its abolition had already been announced by the Bishop of Cebu some years previously. A complement of Parian ilustrados (later surnamed Veloso and Osmeña, among others) was waging the fight for its life. By 1849 the parish-town’s abolition was finally confirmed by the governor general (presumably the self-same Clavería) and in 1875 its church was even actually demolished on orders not holy.

[The old Parian of Cebu territory encompassed Parian and Lutaos, the former an enclave of mestizo Sangleys and the latter a mixture of non-Christian Chinese and non-Cebuano natives.Meanwhile, the ancient Ciudad de Cebú (Ciudad del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús) was originally established 1571 to be an entirely Spanish city, and the authorities had even tried to bring in whole families from Spain at one time or another, to populate it. But it being walled (intramuros) and with so few feligreses, the city’s jurisdiction must have been so limiting that, arguably, even its Cathedral church would not be able to find the necessary financial support for its own upkeep or ambitions. Tension between it and the seemingly limitless Parian would undoubtedly arise, as the latter would appear to the Bishop, or whoever was sitting on the Cathedral, to be quite tempting and enviable indeed. ]

Anyway, Roman Protacio, as Sarmiento was known before the 1849 Claveria decree, was already in Carcar certainly by the 1830s as ascertained by the baptism of his son, Gregorio in 1839, although the record does point to Roman as a feligrés (parishioner) still of Parian and nor did he belong to any Carcar barangay cabeza. .

Here’s the record for Gregorio’s baptism.

Sarmiento, Gregorio baptism 1839

My immediate reaction was to jump at the name because I carelessly misread it as Greg.o Sarmiento. A more careful look revealed that what I thought was Sarmiento was actually Sant.omest.zo, where the first word was an abbreviation for Santiago and the second, for mestizo. Mestizo here is for mestizo Sangley, not Español, and Sang.y it says there below the name and mestizo. The absence of surname alone already establishes the difference. Thus, he was baptized Gregorio Santiago. This November 28, 2009 would be the 170th anniversary of his birth.

[I would venture to add that the padrino Lucas Santiago on the record was the later Santiago Alegado (died 1876). Lucas Santiago was a cabeza around that time, or earlier, but Santiago must have been a man of some stature in the town that Roman Sarmiento called on him to be a padrino for his eldest son. Anyway, there are many records of his name (or as Santiago Lucas) around and even his son Saturnino Alegado was also called Saturnino Lucas before the Claveria decree. This son, nicknamed Hapay, has influential descendants, and a grandson was able to establish a good name for himself in Glan, now Sarangani, that a barangay was named after him there–Barangay Emilio Alegado. Also, a great-grandson is Consul Arcadio Alegrado. Roman Sarmiento chose well. Who Joaquin Claudio was I leave still a blank, or to others.]

Gregorio was probably the eldest child, or at least he was the eldest of Sarmiento’s four children (on my files) who reached adulthood and had families of their own–he (married to Getrudes Villanueva), Telesfora (married to Francisco Base Urgello), Manuela (married to Jose Carballo Osmeña) and Licerio (married to Severa Ybañez).

Like their father, Gregorio and Licerio also became cabezas de barangay in Carcar but unlike the father, none of the two became gobernadorcillo of the town.

Gregorio Sarmiento’s line now includes Alegarbes, Alfeche, Cacafranca, Orcullo, Urgello (who is also of his sister Telesfora’s line), Varga and other families.

Roman Sarmiento had a brother, Severo, who also raised his family in Carcar and his descendants can still be traced in the town. Roman and Severos’s relation can be established by records that point to the two’s being sons of Antonio and Dorotea Maria of Cebu City. Other Sarmiento lines in Carcar cannot be linked (yet) to Antonio and thus, to Roman and Severo.



  1. Apologies. I first wrote on this post about Lucas Santiago (Alegado) that I never saw a Don before his name. Spoke too soon. Checked again and he was a cabeza even well into the 1840s. Sorry, Don Santiago and his descendants.

  2. This is very hot information. I think I’ll share it on Facebook.

  3. Interesting information. I did not know that my great great grandfather, Roman Sarmiento was originally from Parian. I am really enjoying this site. Thanks for all the research.

    • Hi Lucy. I know you are related to Miss Urgello my kinder teacher in SCS Carcar but didn’t know how deep your roots are to Carcar until now. How are you doing?

  4. […] * granddaughter of Santiago Alegado (see Surnames 3: Sarmiento) […]

  5. Hi! I’m the third daughter of the late Jose Sar. Alcordo. As I’ve known that Sar. stands for Sarmiento. May I know from your records the complete name of my grandfather? Thank you and more power.

    • to make my search easier, pls tell me the birth date of your father and name of his father

  6. My father was born on Dec. 6, 1912 and I’m not so sure that roman was his father’s name. May you please research further for this matter. Thank you very much. God bless!

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